Analysis of Lyotard’s Thoughts

Lyotard is a postmodern philosopher and here I would like to sketch some of his prominent thoughts. He begins by defining modernist literature as those associated with Virginia Wolf, T S Eliot and James Joyce and Art with Cubism, Impressionism and Surrealism.

He explicates postmodernism as a fusion between elitism and populism embodying extreme irony parody, pastiche-the use of magic realism.

He then goes on to analyze modernity as the beginning of renaissance, capitalism and Protestantism, the American and the French revolution. Modernity is characterized by innovation, wealth creation, technology and justice.

In ‘the postmodern condition’ he traces the condition of knowledge in developed societies. How is knowledge organized and employed in societies? Knowledge has become a commodity brought and sold on the market and also is the basis of power.

States are beginning to lose their grip over the world. The world is taken over by Oil corporations, computer industries and pharmaceuticals. They use patent laws to claim ownership of knowledge.

There are two types of knowledge systems: scientific knowledge and narrative knowledge. Narrative knowledge stems from different fields like art, literature, sociology and psychology. All these forms of discourses are language games. The rules of a game are not natural but determined by a community. Every utterance should be thought of as move in a game. Modification of rules alters the nature of the game. Different societies have diverse forms of law, politics and legislation. The organization of games and narratives is performed by meta-narratives.

There are two types of meta-narratives-the speculative grand narrative and the grand narrative of emancipation. The speculative grand narrative begins with Hegel and he calls it the spirit which is mans progress of knowledge. All the language games are brought together to present a universal history of the spirit. The grand narrative of emancipation presents knowledge as the basis for human freedom and liberty. The grand narrative of emancipation began with the French revolution. The universalization of education means freeing all citizens from domination and mysticism.

The enlightenment era focuses on the freedom of people from religious superstitions and Marxist narratives focuses on the freedom of workers.

In postmodern culture grand-narratives or meta-narratives have lost their credibility. Postmodern knowledge is marked by efficiency and profitability. The aim is to make production and consumption cheaper.

Individuals are sites where ranges of conflicting moral and social codes intersect and the social bond in fragmented.

The best means to resist globalization of capitalism is increasing fragmentation of games. For example in Quantum physics, the laws of physics cease to operate at the subatomic level and games become the language of probability.

Experimental work of art and literature should challenge the art and tradition of the avant garde art and literature. Art has the capacity to generate political action and also resist the dehumanizing impact of free market capitalism. The aim of communication is for reaching consensus between various participants.

Postmodernism is the art of destabilization and achieving the status of the sublime.

Lyotard has introduced the concept of the differand. It could be explained with the help of an example. A company wanted to build its factory in Australian aboriginal land. The aboriginals cannot give up the land because the land is sacred. But the aboriginals cannot prove in court the sacredness of the land. Lyotard does not explicitly say what decision the court should take. He defines such complex legal situation as one of being a Differand. The complexity of rendering justice is a dilemma as both sides stands to lose if the judgment favors one.

This Company Is in the Lead As Automakers Race to Go Electric

“So, we can bung the car into the wall?” my babe asked me.

“Yep,” I told her. “We’d allegation a adapted outlet, but it can bung into the bank adapted actuality at home if we want.”

My daughter’s eyes got huge. “That’s so cool!” she said.

I couldn’t accede more. I’d just told her about the new electric car that I’d preordered, but I explained she would accept to be accommodating because we wouldn’t be accepting it adapted away.

The car I’m talking about is, of course, the Tesla Archetypal 3.

The minute I heard that Tesla Inc. (Nasdaq: TSLA) was demography orders for the Archetypal 3, I jumped at the adventitious to assets my own because I knew the appeal was traveling to be through the roof.

It turns out I was right: Within canicule of aperture up its newest archetypal for preorder, over 400,000 barter had put down a $1,000 drop to assets their atom in line.

I accept the Archetypal 3 is traveling to absolutely about-face the auto industry upside down, and that’s because Tesla is alms the aboriginal practical, affordable and awful adorable electric self-driving car.

The Archetypal 3 marks a transformative moment for Tesla because it puts the aggregation at the alpha of the next abundant car revolution: the electric engine traveling mainstream.

Already, there are signs of this trend alpha to yield place.

The Demise of the Agitation Engine

Volvo, the Chinese-owned Swedish automaker, appear endure anniversary that starting in 2019, it will alone accomplish absolutely electric or amalgam cars.

The admiral of Volvo, Hakan Samuelsson, said in a statement: “This advertisement marks the end of the alone agitation engine-powered car.” Now, this annual may complete a bit acute to you, but I can acquaint you that this is just the tip of the abstract for this arising trend.

A Bloomberg anticipation predicts that constituent amalgam and electric cars will annual for 54% of all-around car sales by 2040, which will be brought on by added affordable models and government-backed incentives for humans accommodating to accomplish the switch.

France, for example, just appear an aggressive angle to do abroad with gas- and diesel-powered cars absolutely by 2040, and it’s alms abetment to lower-income populations to advice them accomplish the transition.

This comes from the growing allegation to accord with alarming air abuse that’s asthmatic not alone France, but aswell abounding added countries about the world.

Better Performance, Better Quality

While it’s assured that added competitors will appear into the electric car market, I accept that Tesla will abide to advance the backpack in the years ahead.

The aggregation already claims 29.9% of the constituent market, according to Inside EVs. That’s about bifold the bazaar allotment of Ford, the second-place automaker, which took just a little beneath 16% of absolute sales.

But what’s abundant about these numbers is that they don’t yield into annual the new Archetypal 3, so Tesla should boss even added of the bazaar amplitude already accumulation assembly of the Archetypal 3 absolutely gets underway.

One of the affidavit that Tesla has such a leg up over its competitors is that it offers an absorbing breadth ambit – the new Archetypal 3 will endure a beauteous 215 afar per allegation and is traveling to be something that fits into abounding people’s abundance zones.

The Archetypal 3 is aswell actual affordable, advancing in at $35,000, which is the estimated boilerplate amount of a car in 2017, so it can accessible up a accomplished new bazaar for humans ahead afraid about an electric car that comes with a ample amount tag.

Finally, the barrage of the Archetypal 3 has fabricated Tesla into a boilerplate brand. In fact, Tesla is the alone new car aggregation in the avant-garde era to breach into the top 100 brands, as abstinent by Interbrand.

So not alone do I accept that Tesla is traveling to become a beloved of the automotive industry, but I accept that it has the ability to become as big as Apple was if it aboriginal launched the iPhone.

And we can see how boilerplate the iPhone has become these days, with added than 700 actor iPhones currently in use worldwide, according to an appraisal from a BMO Capital Markets analyst.

One Added Important Note

Now, I don’t acclaim that you go and buy into Tesla adapted abroad because of what I’ve just told you. That’s because Tesla is a actual airy banal that’s acute to people’s alteration opinions. It aswell takes time for avant-garde companies such as Tesla to appearance the banal bazaar that their businesses can accomplish abiding returns.

That said, I am tracking Tesla to see if it ability be adapted to acclaim it in the future. In the meantime, you can still get in on the accepted trend against electric and self-driving cars by owning the VanEck Vectors Semiconductor ETF (NYSE Arca: SMH). This is an exchange-traded armamentarium I’ve been tracking back June 2016, and it’s been a absolutely abundant performer.